Space planning in a kitchen requires a significant amount of pre-planning. So many aspects have to be taken into consideration: work space layout, plumbing and appliances, countertops, safety, seating and storage. These guidelines have been provided by the National Kitchen and Bath Association. These guidelines were developed to help designers with good planning practices that consider the typical needs of users. A committee of experts in kitchen design reviewed lifestyle and design trends and model building code requirements to assure the guidelines promote the health, safety and welfare of consumers.
Before beginning the process, it is helpful to analyze what features have been successful in your past kitchens as well as what features were not successful. Often, identifying what doesn’t work can help pave the way for solutions that will be more efficient and successful in your next kitchen.
One general consideration for kitchen planning is to be sure to consider entry doors and what direction they swing. The clear opening of a doorway should be a minimum of 32” wide which requires a 2’10” door. Doors should not interfere with other doors or objects like cabinets or appliances. If space is an issue, consider using a bi-fold door or pocket doors. This is a simple item to plan for, but a costly item to replace if changed after the completion of the project!
In the kitchen, there are space considerations to keep in mind. For example, the distance between work centers. In a kitchen with three work centers the sum of the three traveled distances should be no more than 26’ with no single leg being more than 9’ or less than 4’. With additional work spaces, each additional travel distance to another area should measure no more than 9’ and no less than 4’.
When separating work centers, a full height, full depth tall obstacle such as a refrigerator should not separate 2 primary work centers. It’s acceptable to properly recess a tall object in a corner, like a pantry cabinet. This advice is smart planning as well as great advice from an aesthetic standpoint.
You’ve probably heard of the “kitchen triangle”. The NKBA defines the work triangle as an imaginary straight line drawn from the center of the sink, to the center of the cooktop, Once you have laid out your work centers, it’s time to place your plumbing and appliances to the center of the refrigerator, and finally back to the sink. Some guidelines for that triangle include: No traffic patterns such as walkways or hallways should cross through the work triangle. This can be a busy place so considerations for people to get to other rooms needs to be made. For the work aisle, the width of the work aisle should be at least 42” for a single cooktop and 48” for multiple cooktops.
Rules of Thumb for seating clearance:
For safety purposes, do not locate a cooking surface under an operable window. Window treatments above a cooking surface should not be made from flammable material.
After planning your work centers and placing appliances, take into consideration your countertop space. A total of 158” x 24” deep is needed (with at least 15” of clearance above) to accommodate all kitchen uses, including landing area, preparation/work area and storage. Consider countertops with clipped or rounded corners because the edges are safer than sharp angled edges.
There’s more to consider in the kitchen than cooking. Also to consider are the people that will be passing by as you cook and the people that will be sitting to enjoy the fruits of the kitchen labor. In a seating area where no traffic passes behind, allow 32” of clearance from the counter/table edge to a wall or other obstruction. If traffic does pass behind a seated diner, allow at least 36” for someone to edge past and allow at least 44” for someone to be able to walk past.
Rules of thumb for seating clearance:
There never seems to be enough storage for all of the latest kitchen gadgets and tools, but at a minimum, you need 1400” or 116’8” of total shelf/drawer frontage for a small kitchen that measures less than 150 SF. You need 1700” or 141’8” for a medium sized kitchen that measures 151 to 350 sf and 2000” or 166’8” for a large kitchen that is greater than 350 SF. If your kitchen has a corner, at least one corner cabinet should contain functional storage, such as a lazy-susan.
With today’s focus on green and increased waste for families, consider including 2 waste receptacles. Both can be for waste or one can serve as a recycling station. One is best located near the sink/prep area. The second can be right beside the primary or in another location in the kitchen that is convenient for you.
Lastly, check your local building code for placement and quantity of electrical receptacles. Code requires that GFCI (Ground- fault circuit-interrupters) protection is required on all receptacles servicing countertop surfaces within the kitchen. Also, check your code requirements for lighting. Every work surface should be well illuminated by appropriate task lighting and at least one wall switch controlled light must be provided.
Keeping these guidelines in mind when planning your kitchen will ensure you have a safe, healthy and productive working environment. These are guidelines, so if you are an experienced cook and have traits and habits that modify these guidelines, remember your kitchen is designed to work best for you and your lifestyle.